The coast of southern France is a fascinating place. Not far from the city of Marseilles, the coast erupts in series of jagged finger-like formations. This is the Massif des Calanques, a collection of impressive narrow inlets with steep walls rising on either side that comprise the Calanques National Park. As these walls are made of soft rocks like limestone, erosion carves out stunning jagged landscapes filled with turquoise waters – the picture of tranquillity. The Calanque de Morigou is one of the largest of the whole Massif des Calanques park. At its base are beaches and a narrow harbour where those so inclined can explore this exotic landscape by boat. Above, the landscape of the Calanque de Morgiou is no less impressive as the panoramas over these rugged headlands under the brilliant French sunshine is magnificent. Many hiking trails criss-cross this landscape, perfect for hikers of all abilities. Once a fishing port because of its strategic and protective location, the harbour at the Calanque of Morgiou is famed for giant tuna fishing hosted by the Marseillais when King Louis XIII visited the region in 1622. It is here too that we find the submerged entrance to the astounding Cosquer Cave, some 37 metres (121 feet) below sea level. After divers swim through a 175-metre (574 ft) tunnel, the narrow entrance opens into the Cosquer Cave – a cavern full of prehistoric art, including 65 stencils of human hands made 27,000 years ago! Though rising water levels have destroyed most of the art, there are still about 150 paintings visible. Even if you can’t see this amazing cave, the Calanques – and the Calanque de Morgiou in particular – are such a spectacular place to visit.
Pro tip: Hike to the Cap Sutigan overlooking the Calanque de Morgiou from the University (even accessible via bus from Marseille). Or drive down to the harbour itself on a road from Marseille suburb, Les Baumettes.
Probably most famous for its role on HBO hit Game of Thrones(part of Dragonstone), the craggy islet of San Juan de Gaztelugatxe – meaning the Rock Castle from the Basque language – is perhaps one of Europe’s most fascinating and fantastical monuments. With its picture-perfect monastery perched perilously at the top of a formidable rock pinnacle, its not hard to see why San Juan de Gaztelugatxe was chosen as a location in the fantasy land of Westeros. Narrowly perched on the Bay of Biscay deep in Basque Country, the sea crashes endlessly at the islet, eroding away at the rocks. After a long walk to the island, across the causeway and up the rough-worn stairs, you arrive at the monastery or hermitage. This little building, dangling 80 metres above the sea, is dedicated to John the Baptist, and dates back to the 9th and 10th centuries and is the final resting place of medieval monks. Its location was long considered strategic and played a role in several battles – the place where the Lord of Biscay confronted the King of Castille in the mid 14th century, the site of a sacking from Huguenots (Protestants persecuted in France) from La Rochelle, an 18th century English raid and even a naval battle during the horrific Spanish Civil War. Despite its tragic history, today San Juan de Gaztelugatxe is a place of great mystique and wonder – not to mention an amazing place for budding photographers!
Pro tip: This place was busy pre-Game of Thrones and the fantasy series will only continue making it more popular. Avoid the crowds (and the heat!) as best as possible by visiting in the off season, or early in the day. Get the most out of your visit by hiking from Bakkio town along the coast.
Cliff Baths ruins of Enniscrone in Co Sligo, Ireland
The west coast of Ireland is a magical place. Timeless and unspoilt, the west coast has managed to keep an aura of otherworldliness. Full of historical and natural wonders, County Sligo is a little-travelled place of fantastic hiking, breathtaking coasts, ancient Neolithic monuments and crumbling abbeys. Enniscrone is a little seaside village where waves crash against rocky headlands and wind sweeps over sand dunes, paired with 5km of beach strand perfect for bathing – if you’re willing to risk Atlantic temperatures! Rising out of the edge of the sea on the foot of Enniscrone are the ruins of the Victorian era Enniscrone Cliff Baths, a strange sort of castellated little building. The Cliff Baths were built in 1850 by a wealthy local family, the Ormes, who owned large tracts of land in Sligo and Mayo. The Ormes, wanting to turn Enniscrone into a fashionable beach resort town, built the lodge and the baths to attract the fashionable crowd. They even built a man-made tidal pool in front of the Cliff Baths in order to ensure that all baths would be supplied with fresh seawater no matter the tides (today its a popular spot with local kids). Little remains of this once-luxurious resort bath, and it has been allowed to fall into disrepair, helped along by the the crash of the tide, the gusts over the Atlantic, and the salty seawater in the air. Today it is simply an idyllic place to take dramatic photography!
Pro tip: Book a seaweed bath at the more modern bathhouse, Killcullen Seaweed Baths, or head north along the coasts to Voya Baths in Strandhill.
Holy Mary of Spilice Church on Lopud Island, Croatia
Built in 1483, the beautiful Church of Marija od Špilice or Mary of Spilice was constructed as part of Lopud Island’s Franciscan Monastery. Lopud Island is one of the three Elafiti Islands in the Adriatic Sea off the coast of southern Croatia. Lopud was first inhabited by the Greeks and then the Romans, though no architectural ruins remain. Once part of the powerful and ancient kingdom of Ragusa, the island hosts some spectacular medieval ruins – such as this Franciscan monastery, as well as a second monastery, several hermitages, aristocratic villas, a couple of forts and far too many churches to count. Though Lopud’s main Franciscan monastery is literally crumbling around itself, the complex still contains a working church. It’s a miracle that Lopud’s monastery is still here – it has survived earthquake, fires, annexation, dereliction, war, and other disasters, and yet here it is today, overlooking Lopud’s lovely harbour, marvelling visitors to this tiny, bucolic island every day in the 21st century.
Pro tip: Most people only visit the island (along with the other Elafiti Islands) as day trip from Dubrovnik – unsustainable tourism. However, the best way to visit the island – or any of Croatia’s islands – is to spend more time than an hour or two – or even the night.
Get this. The windiest place in the UK…is called The Butt (cue endless jokes about the Butt being very windy…)! The Butt of Lewis (confusingly located at the northernmost point of the Isle of Lewis in Scotland’s Outer Hebrides) is a lonely andwindswept headland home to a solitary lighthouse. Constructed in the 1860s, this unusual red-brick lighthouse was inhabited by a lighthouse keeper until 1998 when it was automated. Lighthouse keeping was a lonely existence. Being stationed on the comparatively large and civilised Isle of Lewis wouldn’t have been too bad – nearby villages such as Ness, Borve and Barvas kept keepers provided with fresh supplies and news. However, lighthouse keepers on small, uninhabited islands lived a desolate and difficult existence. The most famous case was that of the Flannan Isles Lighthouse, located on a rock pinnacle off the coast of Lewis. In December of 1900, 3 lighthouse keepers were prevented from returning to land after their long shift. When a boat finally arrived, incomers found a desolate and deserted island, wreaked by a violent storm. One coat still hung on its peg, iron railings and railroad tracks were mangled and uprooted, and a crate of equipment ruined… with no one to be seen. The logbooks – not updated for a week – note that the men had been acting strange (hardworn mariners noted as struck silent dumb, crying, and praying) during a terrible storm that supposedly raged for 3 days. The strangest part? The island could be seen from Lewis and ships had sailed the Hebrides waters…but no storm had been recorded. (Goosebumps, anyone?) Even after years of searching for them and the truth of what happened Dec. 15th, 1900, nothing has been uncovered. Conspiracy theorists will say anything from madness to pirates to aliens, though a rogue wave is probably the most likely answer (two men swept off when securing the equipment, the third as he attempted to help or warn the others). But we’ll probably never know – and now that the forlorn lighthouses such as the Butt of Lewis and Flannan Isle are automated, the saga of lonely lighthouse keepers is at an end, keeping their secrets with them.
Pro tip: Take great care when visiting the Butt of Lewis – it is VERY windy. Secure anything at risk of being blown away (hats, scarves, glasses) before approaching. For those who wish, there is a 3-4km coastal walk from Eoropie Beach to the Butt of Lewis. Flannan Isle is hard to get to – if it’s a must-see for you, try with Seatrek.
Faro de Caballo (Horse Lighthouse), Cantabria, Spain
Cantabria is a little-visited region on Spain’s north coast. Though on one side of the region is Basque Country and Bilbao, and the other, the famous Santiago del Compostela, few people know of the region’s existence much less add Cantabria to their Spanish itinerary. It is an out-of-the-way place categorised by mild temperatures, regular rainfall, quiet harbours and green hills. The ocean is the region’s constant companion, supporting a bustling fishing industry – notably, the anchovies of Santoña, which are world-renowned. Not far from Santoña is the rugged Monte Buciero on a spit of land that juts out into the Cantabrian Sea. At the end of the point, at the bottom of hundreds of steps carved into rugged rocky pinnacles is the squat little Faro de Caballo (Horse Lighthouse). Erected in 1863 on this forlorn outcrop of the Spanish coastline, the steps and foundations of the Faro de Caballo were placed there by prisoners of Santoña’s jail. From the 1800s to 1993, the light of Faro de Caballo shone through the waters, warning ships of the Cantabrian Coast. Today, the Faro de Caballo is part of the Las Marisma de Santoña, Victoria and Joyel Nature Park. To get there, start your hike in Santoña and walk along the coast, passing the forts of San Martin and San Carlos and following the rough path through the woods until you arrive at the steep staircase (the route is said to have some 600-700 steps, so wear good shoes!). Be sure you bring your swimming gear as well, as there are several diving ledges of varying heights as well as a swinging rope for the less-adventurous!
Pro tip: The whole hike from Santoña is about 7km, though there is another way (from the other side of the peninsula, by Berria Beach – though I feel that it is more accessible from Santoña. Don’t try to kayak there from Santoña unless there are low winds and you’re an experienced kayaker, as the winds past the headland on the way back can be rough; better to access the lighthouse on foot, bringing all necessary swimming or snorkelling gear with you!
Welcome to the ends of Earth – or at least, that’s a bit what Donegal feels like. The Republic of Ireland’s northernmost county also contains the island’s northernmost tip, Malin Head – used as a Star Wars filming location (a stand in for the backdrop of Luke Skywalker’s hideout). Donegal is nicknamed the Forgotten County – and for good reason. It is one of Ireland’s most remote regions, as well as one of its most sparsely populated. It’s cut off culturally and geographically as it is blocked by ocean on one side and the UK (via Northern Ireland) on the other. It was the last region of Ireland to fall to British rule, who then tried to establish and maintain their power in this volatile region by naming the local chieftains “Earls” – a title against which they rebelled and subsequently were defeated and driven away, henceforth known as the Flight of the Earls. Perhaps because of this, Donegal has a high proportion of Gaeltacht (Irish-speaking) communities. On Donegal’s rugged northern coastline stands the devilishly named Horn’s Head Peninsula – so named for twin rock formations that resemble horns. Today, it retains its wild side. It is also the Wild Atlantic Way’s northernmost section. Alongside Mayo, Donegal is about as close to true wilderness as Ireland gets! Desolate boglands, sheer cliffs, jagged headlands and vast heathland dotted with hardy mountain sheep, Horn Head is a place that works as a time capsule, transporting the weary wanderer to another place, another era, another world.
Pro tip: Unlike Scotland and Scandinavia, Ireland does not have the same Rights to Roam. When hiking on private land (most of land in Ireland), be sure that the landowner has given permission for hikers to access their land. Usually this is the case if there aren’t any signs put up. Use stiles when available, but if you do need to open any gates, make sure you close them after you (even if you found them open).
Ah, beloved County Kerry. One of everyone’s favourite places to visit in Ireland must be the Dingle Peninsula. Rugged, green and just a bit wet, this peninsula encapsulates Ireland in miniature. From cheery towns and snug pubs to emerald fields and fierce coastlines, the Dingle Peninsula is deserving classic. If you want to explore it off the beaten path, hike part or all of the Dingle Way, a 179-km trail that circumnavigates the Dingle Peninsula and brings you to Dingle’s wild side where one will be privy to some of the greatest coastal landscapes in all of Europe! Though flat enough, at the interior of the Dingle Peninsula is Mt Brandon, where St Brendan the Navigator is said to have seen the ‘promised land’ and inspired his seven year’s Voyage of St Brendan. At any rate, a trip to Slea Head, Ireland’s westernmost point, is a must for gorgeous coastal panoramas. Next stop? North America!
Pro Tip: From the local harbour, catch a boat to the desolate Blasket Islands, evacuated in the 1950s due to harsh weather conditions, to get a glimpse to what Ireland was like in the past.
Opposing the roughness of Marseille is the pristine beauty of the Calanques National Park. Though not far from the city, a short hike into the Calanques park feels like a foray into another world! Offering a 20km stretch of coastline in the south of France, the Calanques are a series of rocky headlands, rough landscapes, hidden coves, and secret beaches. The azure shades of the Mediterranean will dazzle you as far as the horizon stretches. Here in the national park, there are over 900 protected places as well as certain eagles, reptiles such as Europe’s largest lizard and longest snake, as well as countless others. Of the many calanques, some are easier to reach than others – popular calanques are the Calanque de Sormiou or the Calanque de Morgiou. Seen here is the Calanque de Sugiton, easily accessible from the Luminy University City (under 30 minutes ride on public transport from Marseille’s city centre) for those willing to hike. Before arriving at the amazing coastline, you’ll first experience breathtaking minimalist landscapes reminiscent of the American southwest on your initial hike through the path! Adventurous souls may prefer to approach by sea – either by boat or even better – kayak! NB: Before visiting, check if trails are closed due to fire risk.
Rough and rugged, clinging to a pointed cliff, perchaed atop a low peninsula jutting out into the ocean, Dunnattor Castle is certainly one of the most eye-catching castles of northern Europe. Located on the Scottish Coast near Stonehaven village and south of the sprawling silver metropolis that is Aberdeen, Dunnattor Castle is best approached on foot. Hiking from Stonehaven, take the back alleyways and countryside path that rises behind the village, eventually depositing you in the emerald grass of Scotland’s countryside. Walk between the rolling country hills and sheer coastal drops with fluffy sheep for company, past the Somme War Memorial before turning a bend after about 3 km to see the distant peninsula crowned with its castellated turrets. Dunnattor Castle dates back to the 15th century, and once even hid the Scottish crown jewels from the invading Cromwell army during the 17th century. Take your time exploring the castle as well as its hidden coves and beaches as you listen to the crash of the waves on the foot of the cliff. Whether gazing at this medieval fortress from above or below, it’s clear that it is an extraordinary feat of architectural imagination and engineering!
Magical blue seas, waves lapping against rocky cliffs with hardy trees clutching to the sides and disused lighthouses perched on their edges. Northern Spain is often overlooked, and even when it is visited, places like Bilbao get all the attention. But hey, head out of the city to the countryside, to the forest, to the sea! And what better way is there to see a rugged coast such as that of Cantabria than by water? Rent a kayak and follow the coastline while searching for hidden coves or silent lighthouses. Maybe if you get lucky, you’ll find trails leading into the forest, old forts from bygone eras of sea invasion, or even a diving platform from which you can jump into the sea!
A stone’s throw away from Aberdeen, the quaint seaside village of Stonehaven clings to the North Sea coastline. Aside from the usual charming nature of being in an adorable village along the rugged, Scottish coastline with waves lapping at your feet, Stonehaven is also home to some of the best fish and chips in the UK. Indeed, The Bay won awards in 2012 & 2013 for best takeaway fish and chips, and it is worth the short wait and the slightly high prices for the delicious battered fresh fish. Stonehaven is also the home of the “deep fried Mars Bar,” developed in 1995 by the Haven Chip Bar (now called The Carron). And despite immediately feeling the need to run a marathon afterwards in order to counterbalance the unhealthiness of the snack, the taste is pretty darn delicious! Not only is Stonehaven a good place to come to eat, it is also relaxing and beautiful, especially so after hiking up to the ridge just above the town, watching the light play off the golden-tinted stones and rooftops. While most come here in order to access the equally-beautiful Dunnottar Castle down the road, don’t miss out on the hidden gem that is Stonehaven itself.
Welcome to the Adriatic Sea, the little body of water to the right side of Italy. Being connected to the Mediterranean, it is, of course, gorgeously blue. The Adriatic contains over 1300 islands, with a max depth of 1233 meters (which is over 4000 feet)! It’s 800 km long, 200 km wide with an average depth of 252.5 m. Facts aside, the Adriatic is a beautiful part of this continent – and there’s no better way to get a feel for its beauty then from the window of a descending plane (even if it IS Ryanair). This is the sea that accommodates the terracotta roofs of Dubrovnik and the stunning Dalmatian islands, this is the sea that traders sailed up and down making Venice one of the richest cities for a good chunk of history, this the the sea that divides Italy from Greece. The Adriatic is wonderful in so many ways. Whether you want to swim at lovely beaches, relax in gorgeous coastal towns, eat fresh seafood prepared by some of the best cooks the world has to offer, take beautiful photographs of villages on the water, or sip wine with a view, the Adriatic has it all.