Natural History Museum, London, England

London museum

Natural History Museum, London, England

The Natural History Museum is one of London‘s preeminent and established museums. Founded using the collections of 17th/18th century collector Sir Hans Sloane, the Natural History Museum was originally part of the British Museum (though formally separated in 1963). It is home to five main sections or types of scientific collections: botany, minerals, zoology, entomology (ie bugs), and finally palaeontology over an impressive 80 million artefacts! The building itself was built later in the Victorian gothic and Romanesque styles in South Kensington, and was finished in 1880. With reminisces of European cathedrals, abbeys and palaces, the amazing Natural History Museum building is as much a wonder as its collections both inside and out (in fact, the architect freely admitted that his designs were inspired by his long travels throughout the European continent). As an interesting design quirk, the building uses architectural terracotta tiles (to resist the dirt and soot of Victorian London), many of with contain imprints of fossils, flora and fauna, reflecting the building’s use. It is an amazing place to visit and learn while in central London.


Pro tip: The museum is free, and normally open daily from 10-17h30. It’s usually busy, but the lack of entrance fee means no lines. We recommend starting at the top to come face to face with the gigantic blue whale, and making your way down from there. It’s also near the Victoria & Albert Museum and the Science Museum. Alight at Gloucester Road or South Kensington. 

Miss museum-going during the pandemic? Visit museums virtually! Take a look at the extensive online collections of the British Museum (recommend to listen to exhibits) or these other museums on this list.


More of Victorian London & Nearby


 

The Bridge of Carrbridge, Scotland

Carrbridge

The Old Packhorse Bridge of Carrbridge, Scotland

Historic, quaint and yet still lively, the wee village of Carrbridge is tucked into the Cairngorms, a massive mountain range and national park that encompasses much of the central Highlands. Though beautiful on its own, what really makes Carrbridge special is its bridge. Spanning the rushing currents of the River Dulnain, its name is a bit of a misnomer – it wasn’t built for cars, but instead for packhorses and foot traffic. The beautiful bridge of Carrbridge dates back to the early 18th century. Before the bridge was constructed, the villagers had no way to cross the river when it was flooded, meaning that the villagers could not get to the nearby Church of Duithil to bury their dead – and death waits for nothing, not even a flooded river. To solve this problem, the bridge was commissioned by Grant Clan chief Alexander Grant in 1717, and local mason John Niccelsone was dispatched to erect the bridge. The Old Packhouse Bridge of Carrbridge held for about a century, though flooding in throughout the late 1700s had a detrimental effect on it. The famous flood of 1829 left the bridge in its present state. Today, Carrbridge is an ideal spot for hikers, cyclists and adventurers to be based, as it is in the heart of the Cairngorms, it is connected to Inverness by train (less than 40 min journey) and it is a lovely wee spot, quieter than the more famed Aviemore, just one stop further down the rails!


Pro tip: Visit in October during the odd but intriguing Golden Spurtle Competition, an annual porridge making contest (yes, this is a real thing! And it’s the world championships…), or in September for the Carve Carrbridge chainsaw wood-carving event. Best access point is via Inverness. The Edinburgh train usually stops in Carrbridge, and there are a few simple but lovely B&Bs there, including the Craigellachie Guest House or the Cairn Hotel. 


More Nearby in Scotland

  • Aviemore (& its stone circle)
  • The Cairngorm Mountains NP
  • Mt Schiellion
  • Inverness

 

 

 

Bradford-on-Avon, England

Bradford on Avon

Bradford-on-Avon, England

Nestled in the heart of the Cotswolds is the little Wiltshire town called Bradford-on-Avon. Though tracing its origins back to the Roman era like its nearby sibling Bath, Bradford really exploded in the late middle ages due to the woollen textile industry. This legacy has left several of its original buildings such as the marvellously quaint pub, The Bridge, founded in 1502. In Bradford-on-Avon, you’ll also find thatched roofs, picture-perfect churches, historic tithe barns, and grand Georgian streets (much like in Bath). This fairy-town town happily overlooks the Avon River and the Kennet and Avon Canal. Once used to transport goods across the country, the canal lost its significance with the growth of  railways, but Bradford was genius enough to restore to the lock and canal to working order by the ’80s, providing a link to Bath (via the Avon) in the west, and the Thames at Reading in the east. Home to a pretty little path running alongside the canal, this is a wonderful place for a walk, bike or run on those few but appreciated sunny mornings.


Pro tip: If you’re a runner, Bradford’s canal is surely one of the best places in the world to go for a run! Try running along the canal from Bath to Bradford-on-Avon (or vice versa); it’s about 10 miles and the views of the canal, houseboats, swans, countryside and wee houses are stunning. Then, take the train back to your starting point.  


More Beautiful Small Towns in England
  1. Bath, England
  2. Winchester, England
  3. Oxford, England
  4. Mucker, England
  5. Stratford-upon-Avon, England

This post originally appeared in 2013. It has since been revised and updated. 

Bridge in Prior Park, Bath, England

prior park

The Palladian Bridge in Prior Park, Bath, England

England is a lovely place; Bath is even lovelier. Ancient Roman baths, Gothic abbeys, picturesque canals, charming cobblestones, Georgian architecture, amazing bridges and green parks come together to make one of England’s loveliest cities. It helps too that Bath was home to one of England’s most influential writers, Jane Austen, and it featured in many of her stories (notably Persuasion and Northanger Abbey). On the other side of Bath’s canal, meandering forest trails wind through the grounds of Prior Park and its Palladian house built in the mid-1700s as a way of displaying the use of Bath limestone as a potential building material. The house, as well as this bridge nestled deep into the park’s hillsides, was built following the style imbued by 16th-century Italian architect Andrea Palladio, whose rigid classical style briefly became popular in the UK during the mid 17th- and 18th-centuries before being cut short by the Civil War. Palladio valued lines, symmetry and perspective – the ultimate version of Neoclassical architecture. Inspired by the Greeks and Romans, Palladio derived a style that adapted the symmetry of Roman temples and palaces to a more modern manor house. Today owned by the Prior Park College and the National Trust, Prior Park is one of Bath’s hidden gems and well worth the countryside stroll!


Pro tip: No car? Save your walking for when you get to the park. The No. 2 bus runs every 30 mins (from BK on Dorchester Street), though you can indeed walk – its about 20-30 mins from the city centre. Check their website for up-to-date opening info as well as events and festivities happening in the park during your visit. Looking for more walking? The lovely canal you crossed to get to Prior Park is a beautiful place to walk or jog. 


More of Bath and its Environs


This article was originally posted in 2015. It has since been updated.  

 

Corfe Castle, England

Corfe castle, England

Corfe Castle Courtyard, England

Built by the infamous William the Conquerer, this 11th century castle occupies a commanding position over the Dorset hills and coastlines in southern England (though archeological evidence suggests that the area has been occupied for as much as 6,000 years). Corfe Castle holds the distinction of being one of England‘s first stone (or at least partially stone) castles and though ruined, Corfe Castle is still partially intact. The medieval era saw further defensive structural changes in the 12th-13th centuries (in keeping constant with updates in warfare), staying more or less the same until 1572 when Queen Elizabeth sold Corfe Castle to a member of the English nobility. Besieged twice during the English Civil War, the second siege led to the castle’s downfall, and in 1645 it was deliberately destroyed (in technical terms, it was “slighted”) to eliminate Corfe Castle as a military power. Slowly falling into ruin since then, Corfe Castle is now one of southern England’s most impressive castle ruins, located in the Isle of Purbeck Peninsula (which is not actually an island). The Neolithic, Celtic, Roman, Viking, Saxon, Norman, Medieval and Elizabethan periods all show their faces on this beautiful part of English heritage.


Pro tip: You can take the train to Corfe Castle, alighting at Corfe Station. There are many lovely walks in the area – in particular, the hike along the Jurassic Coast of Devon and Dorset is particularly lovely. The closest city of consequence is Bournemouth, though Salisbury is decidedly more beautiful. 


Visit Southern England


 

Temperate Glasshouse in Kew Gardens, London

kew glasshouse

Temperate Glasshouse in Kew Gardens, London, England

The Kew Royal Botanic Gardens are some of the finest botanical gardens in the world.  Spread over 121 hectares (300 acres), wander amongst some 50,000 plants found across this UNESCO World Heritage site outside London. The jewel of Kew Gardens is the beautiful Temperate House. This Victorian-era glasshouse – opened 1862 – was built to be the stunning entrance to the royal gardens when the rail line was complete. Things didn’t go to plan, and the railway station was moved to the other end of the park. The building itself is quite marvellous, containing thousands of panes of glasses (replaced after more than 100 WWII-era bombs rocked Kew), while the thousands of plants within this iron and glass dome are even more so. The Victorians had an intense curiosity. Those who could afford to went on adventures to all corners of the Earth in search of the new and exotic to bring back to mother England – or more likely, sponsored an explorer to go off in their name. Those who couldn’t afford the adventures themselves would instead satisfy their curiosity by going to palm houses, world fairs, circuses, museums, curiosity cabinets, exhibits, wax halls, and other such places. Housing 1,500 plants from 5 continents and 16 islands, the Temperate House covers plants within the temperate zone (where most of the world population lives, the temperate zone is sandwiched between the polar and tropics – including North America, Europe, China, Australia, southern Africa, and parts of South America). While at the Temperate House, wander the narrow alleys between plants before climbing up to the viewing platform for an aerial panorama of the ecosystems below and the wrought and cast iron structure above. Whether or not you have an interest in biology and ecosystems, Kew Gardens and its glasshouses are a fascinating place – both pulling you into the past with its Victorian glasshouses as well as looking towards the future at the effects humans have on the planet, and working to conserve and protect the Earth’s flora.


Pro tip: Visit the Palm House while you’re at Kew Gardens. When you’re in Belfast, be sure to visit the Palm House in Belfast’s Botanical Gardens and in Dublin visit the National Botanic Gardens – all four glasshouses are designed by Victorian-era architect Richard Turner. Also while in Kew, be sure to check out the beautiful glass art by artist Dale Chihuly.


What else is there to see in London?


 

Edinburgh Old Town, Scotland

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Cockburn Street in Edinburgh Old Town, Scotland

Despite its unfortunate name, Cockburn Street is a lovely wee street that leads from Waverley Train Station in the New Town up into Edinburgh‘s spectacular Old Town. Much of the Old Town still follows its medieval street plan, comprised of a network of cobbled streets, narrow closes and wide avenues. Edinburgh’s Old Town is full of grander, glitz and history. Wander up to Royal Mile (High Street), marvel at the cathedrals, churches and museums, walk along grand buildings, watch street performers, duck into lively pubs and cosy cafes, before finally arriving at Edinburgh Castle, an idyllic fortification that perches on a huge crag formed by a now-extinct volcano. Alongside Edinburgh’s New Town (built in the 18th-19th century), Edinburgh’s city centre is part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and is the most significant cultural hub of Scotland. Because of limited space and advantage of living within the defensive wall (now gone), the Old Town became home to some of the world’s earliest “high rise” buildings as early as the 16th century. Though boasting certain advantages, the tightly-packed atmosphere was vulnerable to flames, and the Old Town is marked by the Great Fire of Edinburgh of 1824, which obliterated huge portions of buildings on the south side, and their rebuilding in Victorian times led to the accidental creation of numerous passages and vaults under the Old Town. Another blight on Edinburgh was the 20th century slum clearances, when the rundown, overpopulated slums of Canongate were cleared out in the 1950s to make room for grander buildings. Despite these darker elements of Edinburgh’s past, the Edinburgh of today is a busy, lively and fun place to be.


Pro tip: Looking for a wool or tweed souvenir? Avoid the shops on High Street as unfortunately a lot of that is made in China these days. You can’t go wrong with traditional Harris Tweed, made solely on the Isle of Harris in the Outer Hebrides and with each weaver certified to the brand’s high standards.


More of Scotland


 

Hall’s Croft in Stratford-Upon-Avon, England

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Hall’s Croft House in Stratford-Upon-Avon, England

Stratford-upon-Avon is one of England’s most historic cities. Perhaps most famous for its connection to English playwright William Shakespeare, many of the 16th and 17th century historic houses have some sort of connection to the most famous playwright of the English language. Hall’s Croft House is part of the “next generation” – the Jacobean house once inhabited by William Shakespeare’s daughter Susanna, and her husband, his son-in-law John Hall, who was a successful doctor in Stratford-Upon-Avon. A beautiful example of a timbered house inspired by styles of medieval timbered buildings, Hall’s Croft was built in 1613 in a fashionable part of Stratford. John Hall himself, though attaining nothing like the fame of William Shakespeare, was a respected doctor in his day, even writing a popular medical textbook. Not only was he good at his job (focussing on herbs and plants as opposed to blood-letting or other archaic and crude practices), he was compassionate as well, treating both Catholic and Protestant patients, as well as those of differing economic statuses. Hall’s Croft may just be one structure in a city crowded with rich history and incredible architecture, but it is certainly one of the most fascinating mirrors into the past during the time of William Shakespeare. Don’t miss the simple and rustic yet beautiful interiors or the stunning walled gardens to the back of Hall’s Croft.


Pro tip: Though it’s possible to visit Stratford-Upon-Avon as a day trip from Birmingham or Oxford, staying overnight here or in a neighbouring village in the Cotswolds is a far more enjoyable way to discover this historic place. Hall’s Croft is one of 5 properties part of the Shakespeare’s Birthplace Trust. Though you can buy a ticket to visit just Hall’s Croft (which is the cheapest of the 5) or any of the places, if you want to visit more than one site, it’s more cost effective to buy the full ticket – it’s even valid for 12 months if you’re ever back in Stratford during that time! Learn more here


Visit More Historical Sites in England


 

Oxford’s Pitt Rivers Museum, England

Oxford Pitt Rivers Museum, England

The Pitt Rivers Museum in Oxford, England

Perhaps one of the strangest museums you’ll ever visit but certainly a hidden gem found in an otherwise genteel and academic Oxford, the Pitt Rivers Museum is like a peek behind the curtain at the chaotic underbelly of Victorian England. Though today we may look back at the Victorians and their self-important and slightly condescending world views with disdain, it was a time when people were simply curious about the world, when they wanted to be awed and amazed, a Europe full of people fascinated to learn everything – and the stranger the better. The Victorian era was a time of intense curiosity, knowledge and discovery of the outside world. Bizarre but wondrous technological inventions, exotic flora and fauna, items and traditions from far-flung cultures – it was all new and fascinating. This is the era of the Crystal Palace of London, the Palm Houses of Kew Gardens, Belfast and more, the Eiffel Tower of Paris, the time of the World Fairs and world expositions, of steam engines and curiosity museums. Amidst all this was born the Pitt Rivers Museum. Founded in 1884 by Augustus Pitt Rivers, a former soldier, anthropologist, ethnologist, and archaeologist, the Pitt Rivers Museum is today part of the renowned University of Oxford. With a collection arranged by use instead of by age or location found, the Pitt Rivers Museum is home to over 500,000 objects (though Augustus’s original collection started off with 22,000), with the largest being a 11-metre-high Haida totem pole. The museum was set up this way in order to show the Victorian (and now modern) viewer of humanity’s upwards progression in design, technology and skill, as well as the fascinating evolution of culture and tradition of exotic communities, starting with the most simple societies all the way up to the complex. The museum is a place full of wonders and a perfect viewpoint not only of the cultures on display, but also of the culture that set it up.


Pro tip: Find the Pitt Rivers Museum to the east of Oxford University Museum of Natural History, where you’ll locate the only accessed point. Afterwards, head down the narrow cobbled alley to Turf Tavern, a 13th century tavern, fabled to be the most difficult pub in Oxford and long popular as a place for students to exchange ideas.


Other Timeless & Fascinating Places in England


 

Enniskillen Castle, Northern Ireland

Enniskillen Castle Northern Ireland

Enniskillen Castle, Northern Ireland

Everyone knows of Belfast, and most have heard of Derry, but the border town of Enniskillen slips under most people’s radar. Smaller than the other two, and further south on the border with the Republic of Ireland, Enniskillen is a fascinating little place. As with most cities in Northern Ireland, it was bombed during the Troubles – in Enniskillen’s case, it happened on Remembrance Day (November 8th, 1987), and several civilians died. But that’s all in the past now. Today, Enniskillen is a thriving town, a bustling cosmopolitan centre in an otherwise rural region of Ireland, and a perfect stop for road trips from Belfast to the west coast of Sligo or Connemara and Galway. In Irish, Enniskillen means island of Cethlenn, a mythological Irish goddess, and in fact it is still known as “The Island Town.” At the centre of Enniskillen, its oldest structure is Enniskillen Castle, built in the 16th century on the foundations of a much older fortification (dating back to 1428), which came under siege several times during the Irish rebellions against British rule (including  falling to Irish rule from 1595-1602). Later, Enniskillen Castle was built up with barracks for soldiers, giving the castle the look more of a military fort. Today, the castle site hold a collection of museums on the history of Enniskillen and County Fermanagh in general, as well as the military history of the castle. Though not the most medieval castle, the border town of Enniskillen and its castle is a fascinating look at the history of the Irish border from the 1500s through the Irish Rebellion, the Revolution, the Troubles, all the way through to today and whatever Brexit holds for the future.


Pro tip: There’s a great pizzeria in Enniskillen called Little Wing Pizza – close to the castle with reasonable prices and a varied menu. Learn more about the castle visit (hours & tarifs) here. If you arrive 1 hour before closing, you’ll get a reduced price ticket. Nearby, visit a number of other castles. Explore the islands of Lough Erne – take a boat to Devenish Island, just north of Enniskillen, or White Island, further north. Both contain the ancient ruins well worth visiting. 


More Places in Ireland


 

Sham Castle in Bath, England

Bath Sham Castle.jpg

Sham Castle overlooking Bath, England

True to its name, Sham Castle is indeed a fake. It is what the English call a “folly” (yes, they have an official term for “fake castle” in Europe!). Follies are fake castles built relatively recently – usually 18th-19th century – to resemble a medieval castle. Folly castles were built simply because a rich gentleman and lady decided that they wanted an exciting, over-sized lawn ornament. In this case, the castle was designed and built by architect Richard James for an important local gentleman called Ralph Allen, overlooking the beautiful town of Bath. With a style clearly supposed to evoke reminisces of King Arthur‘s day, the castle was only built in 1762! In fact, Sham Castle is just a facade. No doors, no windows, no roof,  no walls other than the front one. The reason why Allen dispensed large amounts of cash for a false structure that is nothing more than a facade and hidden away in the forest up a steep hill? To improve the view and “prospect” of his posh townhouse in central Bath. Of course. He wasn’t even the only one. Follies such as Broadway Tower, Fronthill Abbey, Hagley Hill, Castle Hill in Filleigh, Gwrych Castle, and many others exist all over the UK and to a lesser extent, all over Europe. It seems that 18th and 19th Europeans were just as obsessed with castles then as we are today; the difference being that then, instead of voyaging to the real ones, they merely hired someone to build a fake one in their own backyards!


Pro tip: You can run or hike up through the woods to Sham Castle on the Bath Skyline Walk (more info here) – do the whole looped walk (6 miles) or just an out and back up to the castle. Once at the castle, you’ll get some amazing views over bath! Back in Bath, there are many options for refreshments – there are a number of great pubs and cafes. Be sure to taste a pasty while here!


Find Other Fake Castle Follies in Europe
  1. Vajahunyad Castle in Budapest, Hungary
  2. Kruzenstein Castle near Vienna, Austria
  3. Albigny-sur-Soane near Lyon, France
  4. Gravensteen Castle in Ghent, Belgium
  5. Chateau Montmelas in the Beaujolais, France
  6. Castle Island on Lough Key, Ireland

This is an update and rewrite of a post originally written in 2013. 

Trafalgar Square, London, England

London fountain

Trafalgar Square in London, England

London is one of Europe’s most beautiful and fascinating cities. At the centre of its buzzing arteries is the scenic Trafalgar Square. Named for the Battle of Trafalgar, an significant English naval victory in 1805, Trafalgar Square has been an important landmark of London since the 1300s when it was home to the Royal Mews (the alleyway where first hawks then royal steeds and their stablehands were lodged until the 19th century).  Around the time that the Royal Mews were relocated, Nelson’s Column and its accompanying lion sculptures was installed. Once again commemorating the British Navy (Nelson was an important Navy admiral), Nelson’s Column was added as a centrepiece to the newly redesigned Trafalgar Square, evoking a sense of magnitude. The fountains were added both for effect beauty as well as in an attempt to counteract the heat and glare that was reflected off the asphalt of the square. Site of countless demonstrations, it’s also one London’s busiest squares, not just for tourists but also for commuters, bikes and buses. Today, Trafalgar houses the entrance of London’s National Gallery, one of the best art museums in the word. As such, Trafalgar plays host to many art installations, Christmas trees – even a clock that counted down to the London Olympics.


Pro tip: Whether you’re an art lover or not, it’s worth a visit to the National Gallery of Art in Trafalgar Square. With an entry free of charge and a massive collection that spans hundreds (if not over a thousand) of years, it’s definitely one of London’s must see museums. Visit during the Golden Hour for the best lighting – the sunlight really plays off the stonework of Trafalgar Square. Though there are many buses that pass through Trafalgar, the easiest way is via the tube – alight at Charing Cross from either the Northern or Bakerloo lines. 


What Else to Visit in London

 

Possible Robin Hood’s Grave in Yorkshire Dales, England

Yorkshire dales Robin hood

One of Robin Hood’s many graves in Yorkshire Dales, England

Northern England is an overlooked, but wonderful place for hiking. The beautiful Yorkshire Dales are an ancient place full of myth and legend – not to mention great beauty. A dale is a British word to describe a valley. Dales pepper the quiet, little-visited regions of northern England where accents are thick, roads are narrow and villages are quaint. It is little wonder that legend and folklore is prevalent in this region. Robin Hood is certainly the best-known tale. No one’s sure of Robin Hood was a real person or not, but he sure does have a lot of graves, with dozens of sites across northern England claiming the honour. This little cairn tucked into a desolate valley in the Yorkshire Dales is just one of many to hold the name. Though Nottingham is the most famous place in Robin Hood ballads, it is generally acknowledged that he was in fact from Yorkshire. The ballads paint him and his merry band of followers like Little John and Friar Tuck as romantic thieves, roaming the countryside in order to steal to steal from the rich to give to the poor. He is said to have died while being bled (a common medieval medical practice) at the Priory of Kirklees. Even though there is still a debate on whether the man really existed, he exists through various place names scattered throughout England, each one claiming something to do with the great legend. Real or not, the story of Robin Hood isn’t going anywhere – and it makes for a great point of interest while hiking the backcountry of Northern England!


Pro tip: When you’re in the area, head to the village of Penrith to stop by Kennedys Fine Chocolates for artesian boxes of chocolates or even just a delicious cup of hot cocoa!


Visit other places in England:

 

Butt of Lewis Lighthouse, Scotland

Lewis lighthouse.jpg

Butt of Lewis Lighthouse, the Hebrides, Scotland

Get this. The windiest place in the UK…is called The Butt (cue endless jokes about the Butt being very windy…)! The Butt of Lewis (confusingly located at the northernmost point of the Isle of Lewis in Scotland’s Outer Hebrides) is a lonely and windswept headland home to a solitary lighthouse. Constructed in the 1860s, this unusual red-brick lighthouse was inhabited by a lighthouse keeper until 1998 when it was automated. Lighthouse keeping was a lonely existence. Being stationed on the comparatively large and civilised Isle of Lewis wouldn’t have been too bad – nearby villages such as Ness, Borve and Barvas kept keepers provided with fresh supplies and news. However, lighthouse keepers on small, uninhabited islands lived a desolate and difficult existence. The most famous case was that of the Flannan Isles Lighthouse, located on a rock pinnacle off the coast of Lewis. In December of 1900, 3 lighthouse keepers were prevented from returning to land after their long shift. When a boat finally arrived, incomers found a desolate and deserted island, wreaked by a violent storm. One coat still hung on its peg, iron railings and railroad tracks were mangled and uprooted, and a crate of equipment ruined… with no one to be seen. The logbooks – not updated for a week – note that the men had been acting strange (hardworn mariners noted as struck silent dumb, crying, and praying) during a terrible storm that supposedly raged for 3 days. The strangest part? The island could be seen from Lewis and ships had sailed the Hebrides waters…but no storm had been recorded. (Goosebumps, anyone?) Even after years of searching for them and the truth of what happened Dec. 15th, 1900, nothing has been uncovered. Conspiracy theorists will say anything from madness to pirates to aliens, though a rogue wave is probably the most likely answer (two men swept off when securing the equipment, the third as he attempted to help or warn the others). But we’ll probably never know – and now that the forlorn lighthouses such as the Butt of Lewis and Flannan Isle are automated, the saga of lonely lighthouse keepers is at an end, keeping their secrets with them.


Pro tip: Take great care when visiting the Butt of Lewis – it is VERY windy. Secure anything at risk of being blown away (hats, scarves, glasses) before approaching. For those who wish, there is a 3-4km coastal walk from Eoropie Beach to the Butt of Lewis. Flannan Isle is hard to get to – if it’s a must-see for you, try with Seatrek


Other Wild & Rugged European Coastlines

 

The River Avon & Church, Bath, England

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Overlooking St John’s Church on Bath’s River Avon, England

Surely one of the quaintest and most quintessentially English towns in all of England is Bath. The tranquil waters of the River Avon winds through the city, a labyrinth of limestone facades constructed with a local stone called Bath Limestone, with the canal on the other side of Bath. Houseboats lap quietly against their moorings, ducks splash on the lush green backs. Church steeples  – like St John’s Church steeple – rise dramatically against a cloudy sky. Forming the southern entrance to the Cotswolds region, Bath is recognised as one of England’s most picturesque places. Lined with rows of proud Georgian houses centred around the impressive Bath Abbey and the ancient Roman baths that lend themselves to the city’s name, Bath seems like a time capsule that has captured the Roman era, medieval times and Georgian England. It feels almost as if we were stepping out of a Jane Austen novel – which in a way is true. Jane Austen lived here from 1801 – 1806, and set some of her novels here (though it is known that she disliked the high society of 19th century Bath). Jane Austen may have found fault with Bath, but to the modern day visitor, Bath is the perfect picture of England! (It also makes for a good jumping off point to explore the Cotswolds region…).


Pro tip: The recently-renovated Holburn Museum of Art is a lovely little art museum showcasing local painting. Runners (or walkers) might enjoy a walk along the Kennet & Avon canal – start from Bath and walk the 10 miles along the lovely and tranquil canal path to the lovely Cotswolds town of Bradford-on-Avon (well worth a visit!) and return to Bath via the local train. Another great walk will take you up the hill to Sham Castle. Also nearby is Bristol (also the local airport), a quirky artsy town.


Other Lovely English Towns near the Cotswolds


 

Tower Bridge & City Hall, London

london-bridge

Tower Bridge & City Hall, London, England

Amidst Brexit shenanigans, London remains both irrevocably changed as well as the same wonderful place it has always been. One thing that London does so well – and so much better than any other city in Europe – is perfectly blend the old and the new. No where else can the Globe, the Tate Modern, the Millennium Bridge and St Paul’s Cathedral sit together in perfect harmony on two sides of the mighty Thames River and seem to complement each other so perfectly. Here London is up to its old tricks again. Stroll through the ultra modern architecture of City Hall and the London Riverside to admire the light and airy glass and steel manipulated into curvy and wavy lines – which contrasts steadily with the Victorian-era and icon of English historical landmarks, London’s Tower Bridge. Built in the 1890s, this dual-functioning bridge allows pedestrians and vehicle to cross while also working as a drawbridge for passing ships and barges on the Thames. London may be a massive city but the best way to explore its nooks and crannies is by picking a direction and starting to walk – no matter how many times you visit, you never know what gem you may happen to find!


Pro tip: The Tower Bridge (not to be confused with London Bridge) is free to walk across but there is a fee of £9.80 to enter the towers (open 9.30 – 17.30) – once engine rooms and now exhibitions. 


More amazing parts of London

 

Muker Village in Swaledale, England

mucker-swaledale-village

Muker Village in Swaledale, England

Amongst Brexit talks and EU deals, sometimes you just want to find a little corner of Britain overlooked by the world, a place one can relax to a simpler tune. Northern England – specifically the Yorkshire Dales and Cambria – is just that place. Swaledale is a beautiful dale or valley (one of the northernmost within Yorkshire Dales National Park) in the Pennines Hills, containing some of Northern England’s most quaint villages. One such place is Muker Village which, despite its name, comes straight out of a fairytale! The quintessential stone town is the picture of 18th and 19th century rural charm. Built alongside a bustling little brook crossed by a perfect stone bridge, Muker has a quaint English parish church, an old world tea shop, a traditional pub, an old village hall, crafts and arts galleries and meandering cobbled streets closely lined with old stone houses. For all intents and purposes, it is the perfect example of an English country village. And its location in Swaledale, surrounded by the world-famous barns, drystone walls and sheep-dotted pastures, complete the painting. Mining and agriculture were once the only industries here, leaving Muker, Swaledale and Yorkshire in general in much isolation – a fate which helped keep local traditions alive. Today, Muker has finally found itself on the map now that the famous long distance hiking path, England’s Coast to Coast Trail (a 192 mile/309 km path) traverses Swaledale and Muker village (as well as three national parks: Lake District, Yorkshire Dales and North Moors). And even more excitingly, in 2014 the first stage of the Tour de France from Leeds to Harrogate passed through Muker!


Pro tip: If you’re planning to hike the Coast to Coast (in entirety or even only just a section of it), you’ll get the most out of it with a local guide. Muker village to Keld Village along the River Swale is a lovely 5km (3 mile) gentle walk through one of the most beautiful dales of the region! Best to hike on the western bank of the river. 


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Kenilworth Castle, England

Kenilworth Castle

Kenilworth Castle, England

One of the most striking ruins in the centre of England, Kenilworth Castle is one of the finest examples of a royal palace in the Middle Ages. Subject of the six-month long Siege of Kenilworth in 1266, believed to be the longest siege in English history, Kenilworth is perhaps most famous for its Elizabethan connection. Construction on the castle began in the 1100s, but it was during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I that Kenilworth came into its stride. Owner Robert, Earl of Leicester, was deeply in love with Queen Elizabeth (or perhaps just her money and power) and spent thousands of pounds renovating and luxuriating the estate. He built a new garden simply because Elizabeth complained about the lack of a view. He entertained 31 barons and 400 staff from her court during her final (and longest ever) visit. He put on pageants, fireworks, bear-baiting, mystery plays, hunting and lavish banquets at the grand Kenilworth Castle. But sadly, she never married him, and he died in debt (did you expect a different ending to the story?). The story of Kenilworth Castle ended about as happily ever after as the romance of Robert and Elizabeth. Colonel Joseph Hawkesworth “slighted” or deliberately destroyed Kenilworth in the 17th century based on political affiliations. It was stripped, turned into a farm, and largely forgotten about until famous author and poet Sir Walter Scott wrote Kenilworth, immortalising the estate in Victorian literature. Today, the mostly-ruined castle is a popular tourist destination, having acquired a little of its former grandeur.


Pro tip: Kenilworth Castle is an easy day trip from Stratford-upon-Avon. Also, for literature nerds, Sir Walter Scott is not the only author inspired by the castle – check out British-Pakistani writer Kamila Shamsie’s short story, ‘Foreboding,’ part of the collection, Eight Ghosts


Other Amazing Ruins in Europe:

This article was originally posted in 2013 and has since been revised and rewritten.


 

Wells Cathedral, England

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Wells Cathedral in Wells, England

Southern England’s county Somerset  is a great place for exploring the quintessential English countryside dotted with farms, small towns and cathedrals and abbeys such as Wells Cathedral. In 1175, the magnificent building of Wells Cathedral was constructed (though not terminated until 1490!). Dedicated to St Andrew, it is the seat of the Bishop of Bath and Wells, and is among the most important cathedrals in England. Some historians say that Wells Cathedral is actually the first truly Gothic building in all of Europe – quite an impressive achievement, and enough to draw amateur historians and architecture nerds in from near and afar. On the grounds of Wells Cathedral, besides the beautiful cathedral, find also the Bishop’s Palace, a series of stunning gardens and the 15th century Vicars’ Close. Wells is a relatively small town in the rural county of Somerset, and so Wells Cathedral is not far from the lush green English countryside.


Pro tip: Wells is a great day trip from either Bath or Bristol (1 hour). From Salisbury, home to another famous cathedral, Wells is about 1h30. Wells can easily be combined with Glastonbury, a place recognised for its music festival and Arthurian legends, just 15 minutes away. 


Other European Cathedrals Worth Visiting

This post originally appeared in 2013 but has since been revised and rewritten.

 

Clifton Observatory, Bristol, England

Bristol-hill

Clifton Observatory, Bristol, England

Starting life in 1766 as a corn and then snuff mill, the Clifton Observatory clings to the edges of the steep ribboned slopes of the Avon Gorge. Sliding into the muddy River Avon (itself quickly emptying into the massive Bristol Canal separating England and Wales, the Avon Gorge streaks through a limestone ridge about 3 miles from the mouth of the river at Avonmouth. The Observatory is not alone in its defence of the Avon Gorge; alongside it, there are the ancient remains of no less than three Iron Age forts. Clifton Observatory was nearly gutted by fire in the 1770s; later left to fall into ruin. The building was only saved in 1828 when artist William West rented the picturesque site as a studio. It was West who installed the famed camera obscura as well as a set of telescopes, together used to detail the Avon Gorge and the lush Leigh Woods that adorn the opposite bank. Even more fascinatingly, West also spent two years carving out a 200 foot long tunnel from the Observatory to St Vincent’s Cave (also known as the Giants’ Cave due to a myth claiming it was once home to giants called Goram and Ghyston), suspending visitors some 250ft above the valley floor and offering fantastic panoramas of the gorge. Although once associated with the ancient chapel of St. Vincent, before the tunnel was built, the only access was from below – the route Lake Poet Robert Southey took in his whimsical descriptions of the place in the 18th century. Whether you visit the camera obscura and the cave or just take a turn about Clifton Down and admire the views from above, it is certainly one of Bristol’s best kept secret gems.


Pro tip: £4 gets you into the Observatory. Get some air in the beautiful Leigh Woods Reserve (maintained by the National Trust) on the opposite side of the Gorge. On the way back, wander through the quaint streets of quirky Clifton, perhaps stopping for delicious Italian at Bosco’s pizzeria.


More Beautiful Places to Visit in England outside of London

 

Cairngorms National Park, Scotland

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The Cairngorms National Park, Highlands, Scotland

One of only two national parks in Scotland, the Cairngorms National Park – part of the famous Scottish Highlands – is also the UK’s largest at 4,528 km2 (1,748 sq m). Interestingly, despite Scotland’s vast and wild landscapes, the Cairngorms, along with Loch Lomond and the Trossachs, are Scotland’s only official national parks (the Isle of Skye is just scratching the surface – think more so the Isles of Staffa, Lewis or Harris, Assynt, Knoydart or Torridon for true Scottish wilderness). A dual tourism season destination, the Cairngorms Mountains are equally renowned for hiking and mountain biking in the summer as they are for skiing and snowboarding in the winter. The Cairngorms also contain Scotland’s second-highest peak, Ben MacDui ; as it clocks in at 1,344m, Ben Macdui is considered a munro (meaning over 1,000m high). Located in the central Highlands, the best jumping-off point would be the quaint and sporty town of Aviemore, about 40 minutes south of Inverness.


Pro tip: get up early to explore the mountains bathed in early morning sunlight and avoid other visitors to the region. An easy way to explore the backcountry of the northern Cairngorms is on the Speyside Way. 


Other Great Places to Hike in Europe


 

King’s Cross, London, England

London - Kings Cross railway station

King’s Cross Station, London, England

The Tube. At once iconic, eye-catching and mind-boggling, stations of the London Tube have both featured in and inspired numerous films, series and books, from JK Rowling’s Harry Potter to BBC’s Sherlock to Neil Gaiman’s Neverwhere. English railways and trains, too, have long held an allure of bygone times of the golden age of railways. Though there are many stations at the heart of London’s public transit, King’s Cross is high on the list. It’s funny how something so ordinary and boring – public transportation – has now become such a powerful symbol of one of the greatest cities in Europe, but there you have it. Opened in Victorian London (1852 to be precise), Kings Cross grew quickly as London’s newfound suburbs expanded at an unprecedented rate, becoming a symbol of the neighbourhood’s prosperity at the time. By the the end of the 20th century, however, King’s Cross station had fallen into decline, and the surrounding streets known for their seedy and unsavoury character. Then in 1997 an unknown author published her debut fantasy novel about a boy wizard called Harry Potter living in a parallel magical England – accessible through Platform 9¾ from… you guessed it…King’s Cross Station. By the early 2000s, the station and area surrounding it saw a serious refurbishment – as well as a bit of marketing: a fake Platform 9¾ was constructed, complete with a half-disappeared trolley! Too bad it doesn’t actually lead to Hogwarts…


Pro tip: Platform 9¾ is popular with tourists so try to avoid peak times if you want a photo! Also, the British National Library is just around the corner if you’re feeling bookish. It’s no Hogwarts, but still beautiful! 


Other Intriguing Railway and Underground Stations

 

Yorkshire Dales, England

Yorkshire Dales, northern England

Yorkshire Dales National Park, England

Remote, desolate, hauntingly beautiful. The Yorkshire Dales, a protected area and national park in northern England, is a rural place overlooked by modern times. Rambling hills, winding lanes and picturesque villages, the Yorkshire Dales are picture of what England once was before the industrial revolution, mining, suburban sprawl, and Brexit. The Yorkshire Dales are an upland region part of the lovely Pennines – a set of rugged hills and mountains crawling down the centre of England, nicknamed England’s Backbone. The best way to explore the Yorkshire Dales National Park is on foot (or by bike) as to really understand the land, you have to connect with it – walk through the boggy, wet, snowy landscapes, cross paths with woolly sheep, stumble across ancient sites and tuck in at a cosy village pub at the end of your walk. There a plenty of places to hike in the Penines. Check out a few of them here, or strike off the beaten path to discover the wonders of the Yorkshire Dales. The region’s wandering hills, trickling streams, ancient sites, limestone caves, forlorn moors, sweeping vistas and quaint villages will make you fall in love with this desolate but romantic place in a heartbeat.


Pro Tip: The UK’s ‘rights of way’ law allows all hikers and hillwalkers to traverse any private land anywhere in the country, providing you leave no trace and respect the livestock and property. So get your hiking boots on and get walking!


Find More Places to Explore in the United Kingdom


 

Inverness Castle, Scotland

Inverness Castle - Scotland

Inverness Castle, Scotland

The city that feels a bit like its at the end of the world, Inverness is a small cosmopolitan outpost in northern Scotland. Crowned with Inverness Castle, the city – and castle – cling to the banks of the River Ness. This relatively new castle was only built in 1836, but it sits on the roots of what was originally an 11th century castle. Today’s castle is built in the neo-gothic style, though the former castle was a proper medieval lump of stone. It’s not open to the public today for good reason: it is currently home to the Inverness Sherif Court (Scotland’s civil and criminal court).  That said, you can visit the Castle Viewpoint for a bird’s eye view of Inverness from the top of the building (admission £5). Though the interior of the castle is closed, the exterior is an emblem of Inverness. It’s also certainly a worth to climb to the top of the castle hill to enjoy the view over Inverness and beyond! Fun fact: find Inverness Castle on one side of certain £50 RBS banknotes.


Pro Tip: Keep going past the castle along the river to follow forest trails through the Ness Islands. Hungry? You’ll definitely have to check out the delicious menu at The Kitchen Brasserie, less than 5 minutes walk from the Castle. Book lovers will love the magnificent Leakey’s Bookshop located in an old church! Looking for music? Try Hootananny for a pint and traditional music!


Find Other Castles in Europe

 

Inverness, Scotland

Inverness River, Scotland

Inverness, River Ness, Scotland

The jewel of the north, Inverness is known as the city that crowns the shores of Loch Ness, famed home to the mythically elusive monster Nessie. Despite this claim to fame, few visit the compact Scottish city, and even fewer appreciate it. The official gateway to the Scottish Highlands, the northern-ness of Inverness gives you the feeling of being at the ends of Earth’s civilisation (it’s the UK’s northernmost city). Small enough to visit in a day, Inverness is one of Europe’s fastest growing cities. It is ranked 5th out of nearly 200 British cities for best quality of life as well as Scotland’s 1st (and the UK’s 2nd) happiest city; being collectively happy seems to be a northern thing as Denmark, Sweden and Norway also often rank at the top of world lists. As you wander the streets of Inverness, there’s certain familiar British-ness (e.g. Boots, Cafe Nero, WH Smiths and Tesco’s…) but at the same time, something resoundly Scottish. Start at the majestic Leakey’s Bookshop and follow the River Ness past the ancient churches and over bouncing bridges, past the modern castle on the hill as the rivers weaves and twines its way towards the long and narrow Loch Ness. Long before you arrive, you’ll stumble across a series of long and narrow islands – the Ness Isles – a 3 mile (5k) forested loop fringed by the quiet river – a place just perfect for a stroll or a jog in the fresh air of any season! Oh and by the way, Macbeth is from here! Or rather, his real life 11th century counterpart was. 


Pro tip: Inverness Train/Bus Station is in the city centre. The airport is an easy 25 minute bus ride – get bus 11A from Marks & Spenser’s. There are Loch Ness half day boat tours for those wishing to see the lake and ruins of Urquhart Castle. Looking for quick, yummy food? Try the Filling Station by the train station for hearty comfort food. 


More Great Places to Visit in Scotland